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(English) THE PROCESS OF ENGLISH TEACHING AND ITS HISTORY IN UNEC
teaching-english

Извините, этот техт доступен только в “Американский Английский”. For the sake of viewer convenience, the content is shown below in the alternative language. You may click the link to switch the active language.

Language is a means of communication between people. It is an ocean of knowledge. Language is primarily verbal because it is part of the grammatical machine in humans that uses sound, phonology, to express ideas and emotions. Produced by the organs of speech, this vocal language helps in the communication of ideas between individuals. In some ways, language is one of the oldest topics in human history, fascinating everyone from ancient philosophers to modern computer programmers. Language is used by millions of people every minute. It is used in two ways:
1) For learning a foreign language. Another important point is how the person’s native language functions. The other important point is that the teacher must translate each detail into the pupil’s mother tongue and compare the two languages. 2) If pupils make good progress in language skills they become interested in learning the language. They must always hear the language spoken, speak, write and read.
A major source of content in the classroom is the students themselves. They have had experiences of life; they have opinions and ideas of their own. Before teaching a foreign language one must develop pupils’ habits and skills in hearing, speaking, reading and writing. For developing them the psychology of habit, skills should be taken into account. Effective learning depends on memory, so teacher must find the most useful ways to make pupils remember materials. The pupils should try to fix the material in their memory through numerous repetitions. Among all ways of teaching the language aims are the most important considerations.
Generally when the teacher starts to explain materials to pupils, she must know what her pupils want to achieve. It is very important to know why they have chosen particularly this aspect (subject) and what abilities they have.
While teaching a foreign language many problems will be met. For choosing methods of foreign language teaching attention should be paid on aims of teaching a foreign language. Each professional has to know all general problems of foreign language teaching. Nowadays foreign languages are taught at schools, nursery-schools and in other educational institutions. And the teacher must know what to teach and how to teach to provide learners with simple and available information. In discussions of language and education, language is usually defined as a shared set of verbal codes, such as English, Spanish, Mandarin, French, etc. But language can also be defined as a generic, communicative phenomenon, especially in descriptions of instruction. Teachers and students use spoken and written language to communicate with each other–to present tasks, engage in learning processes, present academic content, assess learning, display knowledge and skill, and build classroom life. In addition, much of what students learn is language. They learn to read and write (academic written language), and they learn the discourse of academic disciplines (sometimes called academic languages and literacies). Both definitions of language are important to understanding the relationship between language and education.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in Anglo-Saxon England in the early Middle Ages. Learning another language opens new doors in life. It’s true that it’s taught as a foreign language, but it is now a global language of business and trades, as many international organizations are making it as a common corporate language. Bilingual individuals have access to new movies, music, literature and other forms of communication. It is now the most widely used language in the world. This foreign language firstly are taught at Azerbaijan schools. From the fifth or at some schools from the first grade the pupils learn the secrets of the English language. It includes different texts, grammar and vocabulary exercises.
As known this international foreign language has being taught at Azerbaijan universities for many years. A bright example of it is UNEC. For about 9 years ago future economists of Azerbaijan could learn Business English for three years at the university.
What is the difference between general and business English? The truth is, there are probably more similarities than differences. They both require the development of core skills in fluency, reading, writing and listening, the application of linguistic principles and, of course, plenty of hard work. It is important to have a good basis of General English to be able to communicate effectively. However, Business English courses focus on particular vocabulary, topics and skills that are applicable to the workplace and enable you to communicate accurately. Here are some examples:
making phone/conference calls
doing presentations
taking part in meetings
being involved in negotiations
writing emails/reports
You will also be able to concentrate on topics that are relevant to your industry or company, which could include law, finance, medicine, IT, Marketing or Human Resources, while simultaneously enhancing your General English skills. By studying Business English the students can improve their overall English language ability while targeting areas that will help them achieve their goals at work. These could be anything from starting on their career path, looking for a promotion, pushing for a pay rise or simply feeling more confident in their role. Whatever your reasons may be, learning Business English can contribute to your professional progress, not to mention being rewarding and enjoyable. In order to meet the demands of modern employers, everyone from university graduates to senior managers must be able use English for work. Effective internal and external communication is essential to the success of any business, but professionals who need to communicate with each other as non-native English speakers can greatly benefit from learning Business English. It’s used in business related issues rather than conversations that are made in general. It is used by the business people and the employees who need to use it in connection with their daily business or job related activities.
English is the dominant business language and it has become almost a necessity for people to speak English if they are to enter a global workforce. Research from all over the world shows that cross-border business communication is most often conducted in English. Its importance in the global market place therefore cannot be understated, learning English really can change our life. There are five tips to get your business English teaching off to a good start:
1. Find out what students really want to achieve
2. Get a clear idea about the contexts in which learners use English
3. Be businesslike but keep energy levels high
4. Choose your materials wisely
5. Be flexible and try to anticipate problems
To make the right impression, it’s important to teach in a business-like way. This affects not only what you say and how you behave, but also what you wear. If you’re going to work in company, then punctuality, professionalism and competence are crucial.
Learning English for about three years gave good opportunities to the students of the eleven faculties of the university. The textbook taken by the university teachers was “English for businessmen” in six volumes by I. F. Jdanova, O. E. Kudryacheva, N.S. Popova and others. Each volumes of the textbook had different texts, vocabulary and exercises on them, writing abilities of business letters. The aim of the book was helping the students in the field of foreign trade, training of oral speech on the basis of development of automated speech skills. In the opinion of the teachers taken this textbook, an advantage of “English for businessmen” was a wide vocabulary. “For precise and expressive speech of the students, the main task is widening and enriching their vocabulary by quality and quantity” [1, p68]. Using antonyms, synonyms, figurative speech and expressions the students could convey their thoughts to the teacher and other people exactly and clear. There were not only the words of economic and financial field and also the words of everyday life, cultural words, etc. Most of the exercises included translation of the business articles and translation of literary texts. “Translation of literary texts has a great significance in the cultural enrichment of humanity as the people of one country get acquainted with life and culture of the other one by means of translated literature” [ 2, p.60].
The other textbook taught to the students of UNEC was again called “English for businessmen”. But the author of the textbook was O.I.Antonov and it was published in Moscow in 1999. This book was translated to the native language by N.Nabiyev and R. Rustamova in 2009. The textbook provided the readers of business English with small but interesting texts. There were only fifteen texts in it, with the titles like “ Partnerships”, “Corporations”, “Retailing”, “Pricing”, “International Business”, etc. The exercises of that book were of different character. These were comprehension questions, vocabulary practice, vocabulary exercises and translations. With a wide range of exercises the students could easily apply their language knowledge. But this textbook had a poor content and didnt have in common with that time. For the students possessing the language well it was not enough to learn business English only with this book.
As in the general English classroom, learners will expect you to bring materials to class. There are lots of books and online resources available, but it’s important to choose materials that create ‘authentic’ situations in the classroom. Probably the most important resource is the learners themselves. They can provide you with real materials from their working lives — the things they need to read and understand or perhaps even create and present. These could be leaflets, emails, PowerPoint presentations or reports. Learners will probably expect you to take some of these resources and create your own worksheets from them. This shouldn’t be a harrowing experience though! Don’t forget: concentrate on goals and needs. Find out why these resources are important and what your learners want to take away from the lesson. Then come to an agreement with them about how to meet these needs. As you see if the teachers want their lessons to be interesting and interactive, they should use presentations relating with the lessons and hold team work constantly. But a new problem arises: “Is interactivity limited by usage of modern technological means?” No. Interactivity includes presenting interviews, mini lectures, case study, showing participants photos, video, pictures, participating in group work, lab sessions, etc. So each of us can see that interactivity is not only interaction of science and technology, this is working together with students, being close to each other. Interactivity is initiative of teachers to build a new atmosphere of teaching.
We couldnt really speak about real interactivity in UNEC of those days. But of course there were some exceptions. There was shortage of good textbooks, language studies of high quality then. Print of new and better books was of great importance. And both foreign departments managed it. These were two books, one of which was “Business English” by A. Abbasova for the first term, another was “English on economics” by N. Nabiyev and A.Jafarova for the second term.
The textbook written for the first term “Business English” had eighteen lessons and a very wide vocabulary. The author stated that the submitted manual was intended for the students studying for economy and finance and for a wide readership that had a practice in finance. And also the book was for the people with 2000 – 2005 lexical units base [3, p.5]. The book was very interesting and made a deep impression on the teachers and economists. Because there were such texts there that promoted understanding of unknown economic and financial terms.
In the book titled “English on economics” it was stated by the author that the textbook consisted of six parts. “The first part informs a reader about the role of the English language in modern life. The texts submitted to the readers in the second part are dedicated to Adam Smith‘s role in the formation of economy as a science and to the main features of macroeconomics and microeconomics” [4, p.3]. If we have a look at the textbook, we can come across different texts about market economy, advertisement and its role in modern life. It informs the students about international financial institutions, like International Monetary Fund, World Bank, etc. An advantage of the textbooks was that in previous books we couldn’t see materials about Azerbaijan economy, development of oil and gas industry of Azerbaijan. But this book had it.
How is the situation of today’s English teaching in UNEC? The teachers of the university use two books at the lessons. These are “Market Leader” pre-intermediate level by D. Cotton, D. Falvey and S.Kent and “Business English” intermediate level by Bill Mascull. In the introduction of the first textbook the authors write about the book: “Market Leader is a multi-level business English course for businesspeople and students of business English. It has been developed an association with the Financial Times, one of the leading sources of business information in the world. It consists of 12 units based on topics of great interest to everyone involved in international business” [5, p.4]. The book is rich with materials of different character. What is in each unit? There are starting up, vocabulary, reading, listening, language review, case study in a new textbook. It creates favorable conditions for the students to deepen their language knowledge.
“Business Vocabulary in Use” Intermediate is full of different economic terms. The book is designed to help learners of business English to improve their business vocabulary and to develop their business communication skills. The context and the topics of the textbook are different. The book has 66 two-page units. The first 46 pages look at the vocabulary of business areas such as people, organizations, production, marketing and finance. The other 20 units focus on the language of skills needed in business, such as those for presentations, meetings, telephoning and negotiations. All of these units are on the left-hand page. But the right-hand page is full of the different vocabulary and some grammar exercises.
The teachers of the university also use some additional materials: newspaper materials, PowerPoint presentations at the lesson to make the teaching process more interesting and assimilated.
So we witness that the history of English teaching at UNEC has been complex and long. Foreign language teaching initiators of the university have done their best to improve foreign language skills of future economists and to see them in the world economic arena.

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