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(English) Aysel Guliyeva-Gender aspect of competitive human capital
Март 31, 2016

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The chief idea regarding the family entails the allegation that men are “traditionally” the only paid workers laboring among the family members, and the single breadwinners there. This is to say that the gender perspective examines past reality of this version and proves destructive consequences of the aforementioned political myth.

The perception that a man is a person spending the significant part of time of his social construction away from home and earning money which enables him to support non-working family members is a phenomenon of ensuing industrial era worth to challenge in the “breadwinner” fable. About a half (43%) of all families supposes that making money is an exceptional duty of a man. Due to the fact that the first (full-time) salary of women comprises one third of the salary of a man earned so far, the structural opportunity of married women in earning money in order to become a “colleague of the breadwinner” is essentially limited. But because of the fact that the husband is considered to be the “breadwinner”, he is also provided with all the likely support on his way. It should also be noted that the role of the “breadwinner” is devoid of potential conflict. For instance, men laboring as workmen are exposed to pressure demonstrated by the family members thus living through discontent. Some men centering out their displeasure on women. The role of the single breadwinner or “breadwinner’s colleague”  in most of the cases leads to the deprivation of freedom of choice and is depicted as inability of men in carrying out the work considered to be most suitable for them. As a result, gender character of the paid work and the role of the “breadwinner” within a household hinders the feasible equality in both fields as they are regarded as parts of a closed system.

Homework is nothing but inconspicuous and unpaid work ensuring paid one. This is a gender labor reflecting the social value of feminism and thus the administration. Some researchers discovered a difference between the work done by women on free (unpaid) basis at home, and the same work carried out by women on paid grounds. Thus, initially children care was an inalienable part of the household chores; then it turned into a paid job, but now the situation is that this work is provided at homes gratis again. The major part of women work (70-80%) is chiefly connected to reiterated and time-consuming responsibilities. Mothers assume that the absence of husband dramatically decreases the time spend on household routine.

Despite the fact that family headship is legally and socially slackened, salary is an essential means of family supremacy for women. Due to gender-related expectations of household chores and children care, the expenses related to the aforementioned issues will be paid out from women’s salary but not from men’s. A phenomenon of women earning less money than her husband is explained by the low value of women operating outside the household. This state of affairs slightly increases family inequality instead of accepting the in-family discrimination.

The statistics illustrate that Azerbaijani women underrepresented in local production sphere (petroleum producing, petro-chemistry, communication – verily “men’s” jobs) are earning low salary, simultaneously overrepresented in healthcare (80,9%) and education (65,5%) realms are contradictorily getting law salary as well.

Immense unpaid work is required in order to achieve the welfare of family members residing in the small villages across developing regions. Nonetheless, there is a little information necessary to understand the type of work considered essential to ensure livelihood conditions there. Women and girls – citizens of the emphasized type of countries – have to work 3-5 hours more than men (per week) in order to achieve means of subsistence (e.g. carrying water and firewood, cultivating and processing agricultural production vital for their family members) and additionally, are carrying out unpaid work at households of theirs, spending 20-30 hours more than men (per week). On this basis, women performing  gratis work at home spend 31-42 hours per week while this indicator for men is equal to miserable 5-15 hours. The major part of work intended on ensuring basic livelihood conditions is fulfilled by women (carrying water and firewood, cooking etc.) whereas men spends twice more of their time on paid work in particular.

There is a social stratification between working men and women on the grounds of economic sectors they are engaged in. Let’s deliberately scrutinize employment structure of the population demonstrating the stratification between men and women on economic segments (1998). Men (52%) secure more predominant positions than women (48%) in the general employment of population, which is explained by the “breadwinner” role of men in economic and social contexts. The analysis gender-based employment structure of population in Azerbaijan entails the concentration of “men’s” and “women’s”  sectors of economy. The very facts that in the industrial field, men and women are represented by respectively 62% and 38%, in construction field – by correspondingly 88% and 12%, in agriculture – by 71% and 29%, in transportation sector – by 84% and 16%, in communication area – by 69% and 40%, and in housing and utilities sector – by 67% and 33% proves the existence of purely “men’s” sectors in the domestic economy. The alike motives are observed in the field social services: the representation of men and women in healthcare system is 29% and 71% respectively, and in education, culture and arts fields – 32% and 68% correspondently. The verity that social services are mainly characterized by substantial women representation (who are, in turn, regarded as highly qualified workforce in relevant fields) bears witness to the development of solely “women’s” sectors in local economy.

Some particular realms of Azerbaijan, such as commerce and the sale of goods, financial, and insurance are giving evidence for the existence of almost equal representation of men and women, which is stipulated by growing role of women and their increasing involvement in perspective fields of domestic economy.

Separately analyzing the employment structure of Azeri population in terms of men and women represented, it is worth to note an essential difference arising in “men’s” and “women’s” economic sectors. Thus, women of Azerbaijan are chiefly employed in the fields of education, culture, and healthcare (44%), as well as in physical culture and social security (19%); but the percentage they occupy in the domains of construction (1%), transportation and communication (2%) is highly marginal. When it comes to men, their employment patterns are as follows: 23% in industry, 20% in education, culture, and arts, 10% in both construction and transportation, whereas financial and insurance (1%), communication (2%) and other sectors represent the minimal male employment. All in all, the analysis leads to the conclusion that there is an utterly unequal distribution of men and women of the country regardless the occupied field or gender.


The development of solely “women’s” sectors

Aside from education and trainings, other forms of policy also affect the way and volume of men’s and women’s representation in relevant fields. Such decisions may indirectly influence the level of gender gap. For instance, the existence of inexpensive, but high-end preschool educational facilities can affect the possible opportunity of women to enter the labor-market or to stay aside of it, as well as the decision on the type of working mode. Other ways targeting female employment involve the existence of preschool facilities on workplaces, maternity leave, and flexible schedule. Still, measures intended for an increase/decrease in job offers are not significantly influencing a positive change in the gender gap. As a result, women will most probably enter the female-dominated (feminized) fields of activity, while an increase in the number of contractual workers will lead to an equal expansion of the gender gap. Policies which do not fall under the categories of employment policy measured described above embrace the stimulation of entrepreneurship, which reduces gender gap on the workplace. It is crucial to encourage the operations of firms and enterprises demonstrating a progress in the field of women’s integration to the traditionally male-dominated industries. Financial aid to suchlike businesses may result in their market expansion, turning them to be more lucrative in comparison with actual competitors. Other alike measures may aim at the growth in the amount of available workplaces, which in turn creates new opportunities for an increase in employment rate without affecting already existing companies. One of such measures targets a rise in the number of people employed in small enterprises. Men and women must enter untraditional fields of activity for each gender respectively in order to reach efficiency (namely, reduce the gender gap) in akin policies; for example, establishment of workplaces on the water channel for women instead of traditional cosmetics/perfumery shops or restaurants. Nonetheless, training efficiency and basic advantage affects the number of people possessing requisite skills necessary to enter a similar field of activity.

Comparative analysis of men and women in various segment of Azerbaijan’s economy demonstrates the next archetype: women (comparing with men) are willing to opt healthcare, physical culture and social security, education and arts fields (71%, 68% respectively) in order to put in practice their skills and abilities, while men are represented in the sectors of science and scientific service (46%), finance and insurance (41%) at approximately same levels; moreover, governmental agencies (67%),  housing and utilities (67%), construction (88%), transportation (84%), industry (62%) and communication (60%) domains are characterized by predominant male employment.

Popular distribution across the realms of Azeri economy represents the differences between social positions occupied by men and women in terms of gender distinction. Practice visibly exhibits the fact that women are working more efficiently in the fields of healthcare, education, and other areas of social life, while men are occupying leading positions in  industrial and social economy sectors, peculiarly getting paid more.

In its entirety, Azerbaijani statistics displays the expectation of a likely surge of population from public to private sectors (particularly, from industry to agriculture business and entrepreneurship) due to recent enhancement of market economy. Thereby, the role of commerce and services sector in the stricture of segments of domestic economy and the  number of people employed in these sectors has considerably increased since the current expansion of market affairs.

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